These and other modifications achieved the desired result: the long-term retention of hydraulic fluid and compressed air inside the recoil system, even under the worst field conditions. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. The smoothness of this system had no equal in 1897, and for at least another ten years. A rapid-firing French 75mm field-gun being used by the Germans as an anti-aircraft gun somewhere on the Western Front. 1) Vieille's smokeless powder, which was introduced in 1884. The lightweight M6 and M5 variants were developed to equip the Light Tank M24 and the B-25 Mitchell bomber. A substantial number had been delivered to Poland in 1919–20, together with infantry ordnance, in order to fight in the Polish-Soviet War. But even before the 57 entered testing, in 1890 General Mathieu, Director of Artillery at the Ministry of War, had been informed that Konrad Haussner, a German engineer working at the Ingolstadt arsenal, had patented an oil-and-compressed-air long-recoil system. Canister was used primarily in the Pacific. When the barrel recoiled, the piston was pulled back by the barrel's recoil and thus pushed the oil through a small orifice and into a second cylinder placed underneath. ", L’ARTILLERIE FRANÇAISE DE 1945 A 1990 (LES PIÈCES ET LEUR ENVIRONNEMENT), http://www.1939.pl/uzbrojenie/polskie/artyleria/a_75mm_wz97/index.html, Manual For The Battery Commander. Their contribution was a leakproof hydro-pneumatic long-recoil mechanism which they named "Frein II" (Brake # II). Captain Sainte-Claire Deville also designed important additional features, such as a device for piercing the fuzes of shrapnel shells automatically during the firing sequence (an "automatic fuze-setter"), thus selecting the desired bursting distance. The Canon de 75 modèle 1897 is still used in France as a saluting gun. For this role the tank gun required good general-purpose performance but anti-tank capability was not paramount. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War II artillery of the United States, List of U.S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation, Armor penetration table of US 75 mm guns, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/75_mm_Gun_M2/M3/M6?oldid=4377477, Armour penetration (M72 AP shell, 457 m, at 90 degrees): 60 mm, Armour penetration (M72 AP shell, 457 m, at 90 degrees): 76 mm, TM 9-2800 Standard Artillery and Fire Control Material (dated February 1944). That second cylinder contained a freely floating piston which separated the surging oil from a confined volume of compressed air. Enlisted men from the countryside took care of the 6 horses that pulled each gun and its first limber. They are used for State ceremonies. The AP shell for the 75 mm gun was a 15 lb (6.8 kg) projectile with a couple of ounces (60 g) of HE filling propelled by a 2 lb (900 g) charge to 2,000 feet per second (610 m/s). Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. The 75mm Pack Howitzer M1 used the same projectiles fired from a smaller 75x272R case. At the beginning in 1914, the French 75 fired two main types of shells, both with high muzzle velocities (535 m/s for the shrapnel shell ) and a maximum range of 8,500 meters. Perhaps people gonna write about muzzle velocity and armor piercing ability but that a not really a big deal. Accordingly, General Mathieu turned to Lt. 2. British tanks in the early years of World War II relied on high-velocity anti-tank guns such as the Ordnance QF 2 pounder and Ordnance QF 6 pounder for their primary armament. M3 GMCs were used in the Pacific theater during the Battle for the Philippines and by Marine Regimental Weapons Companies until 1944. Some French guns were modernized between the wars, in part to adapt them for anti-tank fire, resulting in the Canon de 75 Mle 1897/33 which fired a high-explosive anti-tank shell. Besides use on the two main American medium tanks of the war the M3 Lee (M2 or M3 gun) and the M4 Sherman (M3 gun). The British after experiencing the effectiveness of the American 75mm tank guns in the infantry support role opted to adopt the American caliber and ammunition by the expedient of boring-out the 6 pounder tank gun to make the Ordnance QF 75 mm. A truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of the French 75 was assembled by the automobile firm of De Dion-Bouton and adopted in 1913. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. The French 75 easily delivered fifteen aimed rounds per minute and could fire even faster for short periods of time (however, the long-term sustained rate was only 3-4 rounds per minute; more than this would overheat the barrel). The total consumption of 75 mm shells at Verdun during the period February 21 to September 30, 1916, is documented by the public record at the Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre to have been in excess of 16 million rounds, or nearly 70% of all shells fired by French artillery during that battle. These guns had the great disadvantage for tank use of not having a truly effective High Explosive round or not even having the option of a HE round. Equipped American and British vehicles such as the Medium Tank M4, the later models of the Medium Tank M3 and the Churchill III/IV (scavenged from General Sherman tanks in the North African theatre). By 1944 this had become the standard British tank gun equipping the Cromwell tank and Churchill tank for the campaigns in northwest Europe. [9] At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. The French Navy adopted the 75mm modèle 1897 for its coastal batteries[19] and warships[20]. These weapons were employed as light coastal artillery and were not declared obsolete until March 1945.[12]. The same rounds used in the 76mm gun could penetrate 6 to 7 inches of armor. They also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing it. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. The wheel brakes could be swung under each wheel ("abattage"), and, together with the trail spade, they immobilized the gun during firing. The French 75mm quick firing field gun was a game changing weapon. During World War 2 these guns also used Costinescu 75 mm anti-tank round. 3) An early hydro-pneumatic short recoil m… 2) Self-contained ammunition, with the powder charge in a brass case which also held the shell. These people must be confusing it with the German KwK 37 L/24 75mm gun that armed the first versions of the Panzer IV. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). During World War II through Lend Lease, the British received 170 American half-track M3 Gun Motor Carriage which mounted a 75mm; they used these in Italy and Northern Europe until the end of the war as fire support vehicles in Armoured Car Regiments. American industry built 1,050 French 75s during World War I, but only 143 had been shipped to France by 11 November 1918; most American batteries used French-built 75s in action. M2 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tank M3. Can anyone give me the skinny on this? The gun's barrel slid back on rollers, including a set at the muzzle, when the shot was fired. They had been designed for the specific purpose of inflicting maximum casualties on enemy troops stationing or advancing in the open. Planche XXI : canon G de 75 mil. Other important rounds fired by the 75mm tank guns were the T30 Canister shot for use against troops in the open at short range. [10], In June 1940, with many British field guns lost in the Battle of France, 895 M1897 field guns and a million rounds of ammunition were purchased from the US Army. The French Model 1897 75mm cannon was a quick-firing, accurate, and dependable artillery piece that became practically the quintessential Allied cannon in World War I. 75mm M3 spec booklet MK VI Download. [16] Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing Company and Rock Island Arsenal, the cannon itself by Symington-Anderson and Wisconsin Gun Company. At the time the contribution of 75 mm artillery to these military successes, and thus to the French victories that ensued, was seen as significant. Updated 28 March 2013 -, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell, canon de 75 M(montagne) modèle 1919 Schneider, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/19326/tunurile-re%C5%9Fi%C5%A3ei, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/721/artileria-rom%C3%A2n%C4%83-%C3%AEn-date-%C5%9Fi-imagini, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group - 75-MM GUN M1897, U.S. ARMY, "Investiture du Président : les coups de canons étaient... made in United States ! The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and retained penetration at longer ranges. In between the wars the US army kept the mle 1897 as their main field gun and these came in a number of variants, the initial versions made in France, versions built under licence in the US, and later versions with slightly different carriages. Find books My father trained on the 3 inch gun while originally with the tank destroyers. The French 75 set the pattern for almost all early-20th century field pieces, with guns of mostly 75 mm forming the basis of many field artillery units into the early stages of World War II. The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. By 1918 the 75s became the main agents of delivery for toxic gas shells. B-25H "Barbie III" showing 75mm M5 gun and 4 Browning 50 cal feeds. Centre des archives de l'armement et du personnel civil 578 1F3 477, on Alienor.org -, Naval Norman Friedman Weapons of World War One, Seaforth Publishing, 2011, p. 227. In order to increase shell production from 20,000 rounds per day to 100,000 in 1915, the government turned to civilian contractors, and, as a result, shell quality deteriorated. By the early 1930s, the only US artillery units that remained horse-drawn were those assigned to infantry and cavalry divisions. This 6.76 kg (14.9 lb) round travelled at 625 m/s (2,050 ft/s) and contained 1.5 pounds of TNT filling and choice of Super Quick (SQ) or Delay (PD) with 0.05 or 0.15 seconds of delay fuse. [15] There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. Several types of guns of close caliber were barreled to use the best ammunition available for 75 mm caliber, explosive projectile model 1917 "Schneider". France 75 mm/35 (2.95") Model 1925 and 1928. … The 75mm Gun Model of 1917 (British) was an interim measure, based on the British QF 18 pounder, produced by the United States in World War I after it had decided to switch from 3-inch (76mm) to 75mm calibre for its field guns. Along with new ammunition, these features increased the effective range and allowed the gun to be used as an anti-tank gun, in which form it equipped the first tank destroyer battalions. While the tank's main gun was considered satisfactory, its armor was deemed to be too light. NEW VANGUARD N. 288. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. fieldgun,popularlyknownasthesoixante … [17] When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars,[18] only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. 1897. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun. The French 75 was a devastating anti-personnel weapon against waves of infantry attacking in the open, as at the Marne and Verdun. When using high-velocity armor-piercing (HVAP) rounds, the 75mm guns were able to penetrate 4 to 4.5 inches of armor at nearly 1,100 yards. The Deport 75 was returned to Puteaux arsenal for further improvements. The French 75 introduced a new concept in artillery technology: rapid firing without realigning the gun after each shot. History. The gun was officially adopted on 28 March 1898 under the name "Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897". The venerable soixante-quinze was a decent anti-tank gun but was heavy and much harder to conceal than the newer, small, high-velocity, small calibre anti-tank weapons. Updated 03 March 2012. The first armor-piercing round was the 18 lb (8.2 kg) M72 AP-T, a plain uncapped AP round whose performance dropped off as range increased due to poor aerodynamics. The upgrade was made with removable barrels. 1897(1897 Pattern cannon), was one of most important artillery systems ever. In the meantime it had to do with a total of about four thousand de Bange 90 mm, 120 mm and 155 mm field and converted fortress guns, all without recoil brakes, that were effective but inferior in rate of fire to the more modern German heavy artillery. I read that the Tank Destroyer forces started with the famed French 75mm gun. By July 1944 complaints started to pour in about the inadequate anti-tank performance of the M4 Medium tanks fitted with the 75mm M3 gun. There is a perception that Saint-Chamond somehow used their own 75mm gun without permission and the royalties for the gun went to Lt.Col. Romania had a considerable number of World War I guns of 75 mm and 76.2 mm. Autore: Steven J. Zaloga Codice: 228M024288 Prenota Richiedi informazioni Dillo ad un amico. Britain also purchased a number of the standard 75 mm guns and adapted them for AA use using a Coventry Ordnance Works mounting, the "Centre Trunnion". 1903. Pages 80–93 in "Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel (1920)" United States. FRENCH 75MM GUN - The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery. Bringing down the wheel anchors tied to the braking system was called "abattage". The tank's primary armament was seen as its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power. The US Army adopted the French 75 mm field gun during World War I and used it extensively in battle. When the U.S. became involved in World War I, space on ships was limited and manpower had priority over heavy equipment, so American troops often used French heavy equipment, including this 75mm field gun. US Army War College. Several thousand were still in use in the French Army at the opening of World War II, updated with new wheels and tires to allow towing by trucks rather than by horses. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. [13] [14]. British and American Artillery of World War II, Ian V. Hogg, Arms & Armour Press, 1978, p. 22, Canon de 75 mm. This action absorbed the recoil progressively as the internal air pressure rose and, at the end of recoil, generated a strong but decreasing back pressure that returned the gun forward to its original position. In 1891 Haussner sold his patents to a firm named Gruson, which searched for potential buyers. The M48 was available in 2 versions, standard or supercharge which increased the propellent charge for greater muzzle velocity (1,885 ft/s (575 m/s) vs. 1,470 ft/s (450 m/s)) and range (2,300 yards greater). In 1915 Britain acquired a number of "autocanon de 75 mm mle 1913" anti-aircraft guns, as a stopgap measure while it developed its own anti-aircraft alternatives. [11] The basic, unmodified gun was known in British service as "Ordnance, QF, 75mm Mk 1", although many of the guns were issued to units on converted or updated mountings. October 1917, Range tables for French 75-/mm Gun Model 1897, 75 Millimeter Gun Material Model of 1897 M1 (French). At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. Some of the guns had their wheels and part of their carriages cut away so that they could be mounted on a pedestal called a "Mounting, 75mm Mk 1". Many were captured by Germany during the Fall of France in 1940, in addition to Polish guns captured in 1939. Two young military engineers from Ecole Polytechnique, Captains Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho, continued development and introduced an improved version in 1896. Over 17,500 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns were produced during World War I, over and above the 4,100 French 75s which were already deployed by the French Army in August 1914. After reviewing the blueprints in February 1892, the French artillery engineers advised that a gun should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention. 31 March 1941, List and pictures of World War I surviving 75 mm Mle 1897 guns, Photos of a reproduction or restored US M1918 limber for the 75 mm gun M1897 with all accoutrements, Mortier de 220 modèle 1915/1916 Schneider, Canon Court de 105 M modele 1909 Schneider, Obusier de 200 "Pérou" sur affût-truck TAZ Schneider, Mortier de 293 Danois sur affut-truck modèle 1914, Canon de 220mm L Mle1917 Schneider (FAHM), Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider sur affût-chenilles St Chamond, Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider-St Chamond, Canon Court de 105 M modèle 1919 Schneider, Mitrailleuse Gatling modèle APX 1895 (1895), 8 mm Lebel smokeless powder cartridge (1886), Du Temple high-circulation steam engine (1876), Camion équipé d'un système d'artillerie CAESAR (2008), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canon_de_75_modèle_1897&oldid=993415845, World War I artillery of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1898–present (still used as a saluting gun). The French Army had to wait until early 1917 to receive in numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes (e.g. In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. Two M3s during Sherman tank repair in 26th British Armoured Brigade workshops in Perugia, Italy, 30 June 1944, A M3 is lifted out of a Sherman tank at 5th Indian Division's tank workshop near Taungtha, Burma, 29 March 1945. Further, 40 former French Shermans equipped with French AMX-13 turrets were captured from Egypt in 1956. The final experimental version of Deport's 75 mm field gun was tested during the summer of 1894 and judged very promising. it was mounted on the M6 mount. 21868°— 17 (3) .377770 the french 75-mm. 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Pour in about the inadequate anti-tank performance of the M3 with a thin-walled!