The kinship system was important in the traditional African society because of the following fac to rs. Kinship sets guidelines for communication and interactions among people. In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Discuss the traditional ways of worshipping God. Describe the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community. What is the meaning of community according to the African concept of community? It determines family line relationships i.e. This chapter discusses the theoretical perspective of traditional counseling from an African context. There is no award you receive for being the best family member but if you are from any part of Nigeria and you don't have ‘family' there, you will feel very odd and out of place. The forms we find in Africa are not unique to Africa, but they are an important part of African social organization. Because the men generally remain in the community, they have greater authority. Aboriginal kinship ties, values, beliefs, identity and language are maintained by the family. Why is kinship important in African traditional society? (See also Family, Marriage Systems. Patrilineal descent is common among pastoral societies. Early anthropologists assumed kinship was of paramount importance. Thus the men remain together, while the women through whom they trace descent are spread among the population. (iv) They determine how members relate to one another. Kinship act as a watchdog of social life. Every society has a way of resolving conflict that is peculiar to them. Workers understanding of the concepts of ‘family’ and ‘kinship’ It is important for Workers to have an understanding of the concepts of ‘family’ and ‘kinship’ as they exist for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Kinship and marriage are closely linked in several ways. View More Christian Religious Education Questions and Answers | Return to Questions Index. In southern Africa, where the avunculate is common, a boy's uncle on his mother's side may be called his “male mother” in recognition of this special link. gotra and kula. The modern study of kinship can be traced back to mid-19th-century interests in comparative legal institutions and philology. In some groups the opposite relationship occurs, with a boy's father's sister—his aunt—seen as an authority figure called the “female father.” The Tsonga (Thonga) of Mozambique and the Nama of Namibia are some of the best examples of groups that practice the avunculate, although neither group follows the custom as closely as it did in the past. West Africans believed their departed ancestors watched over them. (iv) It promotes mutual love and companionship between a man and woman. A cursory review of the literature suggests that the concept of traditional counseling is rooted in traditional … All societies use kinship as a basis for forming social groups and for classifying people. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). (i) Marriage leads to expansion of the kinship ties. What are the traditional ways of worshipping God? This trend sometimes means that nuclear families are growing farther from their kinship networks. Kinship decides who can marry with whom and where marital relationships are taboo. Deep respect for ancestors. A connection among people by blood, marriage, or adoption. Because different societies define kinship differently, they also set the rules governing kinship, which are sometimes legally defined and sometimes implied. This weakness in kinship relationships reinforced the importance of relationships between siblings and support from friends (Mann, 2002). Everybody has kinship in one form or another. 4. But bilateral kin groups do exist among some African peoples who live on hunting and gathering. Monogamy is further supported by the ability of men to marry earlier than they could in traditional society because of employment and income opportunities in the modern sector. A person's place in society was based on their family status. If a community suffers from drought, war, disease, food shortages, or other disasters, for example, its members may go to live with kin in other areas. Most lineage groups in sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast, favor marriage outside the group. Give the responsibility of the living towards spirits. Although many sociologists and anthropologists have attempted to provide definitions of marriage, none of them has been satisfactorily and sufficiently general enough to encompass all its various manifestations. of Traditional African Tribal Life 1. A brother might also be expected to support his sister's children or to participate in the rituals that mark the stages of their lives. Some peoples who trace descent through women give political authority to men. The clan, another type of group, is larger than a lineage. Kinship was held as being so important in traditional societies that when interactions had to occur between unrelated individuals, rituals, such as the Calumet of the Plains tribes, were followed that converted those strangers into metaphorical kin (Wood 1980; Bruner 1961). The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. Be the first to answer! Is Kinship Important Still? Christian Religious Education Questions and Answers. •The powerful West African Ashanti kingdom developed within a In the fourth kind of descent kinship, bilateral descent, each individual is considered equally related to kin on the father's and mother's sides. But disease and malnutrition are still the greatest enemies of African infants and children. KINSHIP SYSTEM IN AFRICAN COMMUNITIES. What is the meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional society? •In many societies, unilineal descent groups assume important corporate functions such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support. Unilineal descent •Many societies construct kinship groupings, roles, and relationships by tracing descent exclusively through the male - patrilineal - or female - matrilineal - line. Kinship is the web of relationships woven by family and marriage. Although different cultures have recognized various kinds of kinship, traditional kinship generally means much more than blood ties of a family or household. (iii) Marriage of many wives is a source of wealth to the family. Importance of Kinship in Rural Society: It is important to study kinship, as it helps in sociological and anthropological theory building. (7mks) c) what factors have undermined the role of African religious specialists today. The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. Social and geographic mobility, soaring divorce rates, and nontraditional family forms have produced social networks based more on voluntary ties than on traditional bonds of blood and marriage. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family. Answers (1). paper by . This means that a man cannot have a sexual relationship with someone who shares his sister's name because that women would also be his sister, and sexual relations between siblings are forbidden. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. Discuss the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits. What is the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community? Primary and High School Exams in Kenya With Marking Schemes. If a person was born to farmers, they would be farmers, etc. In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. 9505-KIN . Give the role of spirits according to the African concept of spirits. In certain cultures men traditionally go to live with their mothers' brothers, while women move to their husbands' villages. So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. It has been generally assumed that the institution of marriage is a universal feature in human societies. As a result, kinship is not limited strictly to lineage. In double-descent systems, every individual belongs to the patrilineal group of the father and the matrilineal group of the mother. Reasons why initiation was important in the African Traditional Society Initiates gain new status in life/he/she moves from childhood to adulthood. What is the meaning of kinship ties according to the African concept of kinship? Belief in magic, charms, and fetishes. Another traditional form of fictive marriage existed among the American Plains Indians in the institution of the berdache. In this respect, North African and sub-Saharan societies differ widely. Kinship has several importance in a social structure. Traditional counselling is a growing area of interest in African contemporary society, especially amongst members of the counselling profession. Members of a kinship group felt strong loyalty to each other. Marriage Family and Kinship. Date posted: August 28, 2017. These and other anthropologists held that the importance of kinship in “primitive” societies largely resided in its role as an organizational framework for production and group decision making. Answers. Every child discovers his limbs and in no time at all he also discovers their uses. Kinship and marriage are complicated but important aspects of traditional African institutions. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. All land is owned by the group. 7. What are the attributes of God according to the African traditional understanding? Marriage. Family relations can be represented concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or abstractly by … A clan's or kinship group's history was passed through the griots. In kinship groups, decisions were often made by a council of the eldest members. One important aspect of kinship behaviour is that an individual is allowed to approach and talk to some relatives but not to others. While this origin implies that politics has something to do with groups of individuals, beyond that, politics seems to often refer to methods, including the use of power, for influencing the behavior of those individuals (Grandz & Murray, 1980) and their participation in civic affairs (Bourque & Grossholtz, 1974). of Kinship in . Marriage. Important ceremonies at different parts of a person’s life. North African peoples encourage marriage within a group, often a kinship group. Among the Bedouin, for example, a boy has the right to marry his father's brother's daughter. The Spirit of Ancestors in African Traditional Religion How the spirits of ancestors can be a blessing or harmful and The Power and importance of ancestors in African traditional society Ancestors in African Traditional religion are very important in that they were once alive and now they are in the spirit and they do not die again. ... griots were important in african society because they were african messengers. Marriage and kinship are also linked by customs governing the transfer of property between and within kin groups. 2. Traditional African kinship is a cooperative relationship between household members and members of the larger lineage group. The root of the word politics is Greek, coming from the word polis, which refers to a town of some size with walls; Greek word politesrefers to a townman. The continuance of Aboriginal society is dependent on keeping Aboriginal families strong and healthy both physically and culturally. Zachàr Laskewicz. Describe the meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional society. People are not allow to marry within their lineages, or for the produces new dimensions of African traditional religion. The life cycle. Many other pastoral groups, including the Nuer of SUDAN and the ZULU and Swazi of southern Africa, are patrilineal. (i) They safeguard the community's traditions and customs. Source: Extracts taken from: Family and Kinship by … One feature of social life in Africa's patrilineal societies is the close relationship between a man and his sispatrilineater's son—his nephew. If a person's sister shares a name with another woman, the !Kung consider them sisters. 1. The kinship system regulated people’s behavior towards each other. Although different cultures have recognized various kinds of kinship, traditional kinship generally means much more than blood ties of a family or household. Societies with matrilineal social organization are not necessarily ruled by women. What is the relevance of Elijah's prophetic mission to Christians today? Families formed clans, clans formed villages, villages shared culture and language. 9505-KIN . Marriage. Explain the attributes of God according to the African traditional understanding. Answers (1), © 2008-2020 by KenyaPlex.com. 6. a) Explain the importance of Kinship system in Traditional African societies. Significance of a kinship? Where marital taboo exists decides who can marry whom. Kinship is the web of relationships woven by family and marriage . (ii) They enhance unity among members of the community. The primary focus and essential foundation of African society are social groups. Comparing the . Extended ties of kinship remain a vital part of life in contemporary Africa. There is no award you receive for being the best family member but if you are from any part of Nigeria and you don't have ‘family' there, you will feel very odd and out of place. 3.0 NAMING RITES: Nearly all African … Next: What is the meaning of kinship ties according to the African concept of kinship?Previous: What are the factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in African communities? Kinship regulates the behaviour of different kin. They may, for example, believe that they share a common ancestor but be unable to trace all the links from their own lineages to that ancestor. They often used music in their stories. I would like to, generally, mention just few of them that in my view are most relevant to the topic. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. What are the factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in African communities? Traditional relations of kinship have affected the lives of African people and ethnic groups by determining what land they could farm, whom they could marry, and their status in their communities. Kinship is a system of social relationships expressed in a biological idiom through terms such as mother, son, and so on. Patrilineal descent emphasizes the male side of the family, tracing relationships through the generations from fathers to their children. The culture of women, especially higher education, was of greatest concern from 1880 to 1900, even though the issue nearly dropped from view by the turn of the century. Double descent exists in western and southern Africa among such peoples as the Yako of NIGERIA and the HERERO of NAMIBIA and BOTSWANA. It is from this that an individual attaches and understands the values of culture, assimilates the first social roles and acquires the experience of social behavior. An individual has important ties with two different kin groups, the mother's and the father's. However, there is a great amount of variability in kinship rules and patterns around the … Changes in the contemporary African society African society has been undergoing a process of profound changes affecting all aspects of its traditional life (Kisembo, 1998, p. 208, Vahakangas, 2004, p.43, O’Donovan, 2000, p. 40). Kinship can also refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into social groups, roles, categories and genealogy by means of kinship terminologies. •Unilineal kinship institutions occur at over twice the incidence of cognatic ones among the world's cultures. The family. In traditional African society, men guarded the home and the cattle, or went to war. Mins. Family is the single most important institution. Significance. Members recognize that they are all part of the group but do not know how they are related to each other. Zachàr Laskewicz. Forms of descent in Africa: Patrilineality – e.g., Nuer, Hausa, Zulu …. Traditional relations of kinship have affected the lives of African people and ethnic groups by determining what land they could farm, whom they could marry, and their status in their communities. Kinship is also about economic life. Kinship is thus brought with it a set of obligations that one had to perform when relating to others. Whatever is considered most valuable in society is placed under the direction of men; whatever is considered less valuable is given to women to care for – even when people ostensible know better. Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. Defines kinship and explains its importance. The traditional approach of indigenous African religions to gender is one of complementarity in which a confluence of male and female forces must operate in harmony. Importance of Kinship: The kinship system maintains unity, harmony, and cooperation among relationships. At its most basic levels, according to the Sociology Group, kinship refers to: Kinship and Skin Names. Rights, obligations, and inheritance are split between the two groups. A person's place in society was based on their family status. Answers. This preview shows page 241 - 244 out of 810 pages. What is the responsibility of the living towards spirits? Significance. Reviews the biological and sociological constants of kinship; Previews the topicsto be covered in marriage, family… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 3. What are the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? The role of the traditional healer is central in most African societies, and traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care in most developing countries (Setswe, 1999). This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family. Kinship is a system of social relationships expressed in a biological idiom through terms such as mother, son, and so on. Pierre Bourdieu, Levi Strauss and Evans Pritchard are some of the theorists, who have constructed various theories on the basis of kinship relations. 1Editor’s note: See the comments on this article in … Contrasting Cultures . Importance of kinship is observed on the occasion of marriage and family functions. 6. a) Explain the importance of Kinship system in Traditional African societies. In the berdache, a man might assume both the dress and the role of a woman, often "marrying" another man. Kinship groups formed the government of many African societies. (8mks) b) State the roles of diviners in Traditional African Societies. 4. The stories entertained and educated. Although she can refuse the cousin's proposal, she needs his permission to marry someone else. 5. Kinship is possibly the most important of all human relationships. Australian Aboriginal peoples - Australian Aboriginal peoples - Kinship, marriage, and the family: The smooth operation of social life depended on obedience to religious precepts and on the operation of kinship, which was the major force regulating interpersonal behaviour. Among the Bemba people of ZAMBIA, mothers own the fields and pass them on to their daughters. In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. Initiate acquires new rights and privileges Initiate receives special education from their sponsors during seclusion. It includes a network of responsibilities, privileges, and support in which individuals and families are expected to fill certain roles. Anthropologists who study kinship have identified four major types of descent: patrilineal, matrilineal, double, and bilateral. Date posted: August 26, 2017. Helping another person experiencing psychosocial or emotional distress and mentoring someone to achieve a life … The study by Mann (2002), notes that in rural areas, networks with relatives outside of the immediate household were still strong and relatives played a major role in contributing financial and emotional support to children in need of care. In one type of descent group—the lineage—all members know, or believe they know, their exact relationships to one another. This essay will briefly explore traditional African family patterns explaining the concept of kinship in Africa, the differences and similarities between patrilineal and matrilineal families systems. Give the relevance of Elijah's prophetic mission to Christians today. Ancestor veneration. Asked by Wiki User. Answers (1). There is high rate of infant mortality in traditional African societies. Slaughtering … ). Feeding of the baby symbolized new life growth. For example, male children are favored over females in inheriting a father's property. p119. (ii) Marriage leads to procreation and passing on the gift of life from one generation to another. Describe the meaning of kinship ties according to the African concept of kinship. It is a complex system that determines how people relate to each other and their roles, responsibilities and obligations in relation to … In traditional African society the child intuitively jumps, climbs a tree, dances or performs a balancing act because his siblings or his elders do the same. Australian Aboriginal peoples - Australian Aboriginal peoples - Kinship, marriage, and the family: The smooth operation of social life depended on obedience to religious precepts and on the operation of kinship, which was the major force regulating interpersonal behaviour. What is the role of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? These obligations form a part of Aboriginal Law. Anthropologists call this relationship the avunculate, and in African cultures it may require the uncle to give his best cattle to his nephew or to accept teasing from the nephew. Traditionally, the ideal marriage is between cousins, including the children of two brothers. It involves a set of social obligations and expectations that ensures that no one faces tragedy alone. Tradition dictates that family elders arrange the marriages of their dependents. Kinship is important to a person and a community's well-being. Although these traditional forms of family and kinship are lessening in importance, with the continuing need for urban and industrialized labor and the consequent increase in labor migration, the strength of kin groups remains great. The !Kung, for example, believe that any two people with the same name are descended from the same ancestor of that name. Thus, theories of political behavior are aimed at explicating t… Matrilineal descent, which traces lineage through mothers, exists in many African societies based on farming, especially in central Africa. These avoidance rules applied to both blood and class relatives. things. Kinship is often based on relationships of descent in which kin groups define themselves as descendants of shared ancestors. First, as Lavenda & Schultz put it, “kinship studies in anthropology were based on the assumption that all societies recognized the same basic genealogical relationships” (2015:374). The griots were important in the transmission of African … But these ties still play a large part in the everyday lives of many Africans. This and other aspects of patrilineal social organization can be found among the ARABS, BERBERS, and other Islamic peoples of North Africa. I think an anthropologist’s specific point of view will inform what about kinship is important to us. Membership in such groups is flexible. Holding of the baby by members of the community shows concern for it/ shared responsibility by the extended family. Among the Herero, daughters inherit ordinary cattle from their mothers, but sons inherit certain sacred cattle from their fathers. The griots were often part of religious rituals. This system occurs more frequently in other parts of the world than in Africa. Of course one huge change has been the changing landscape of ideas about gender and the idea of being transgender. Africa includes all of them. Traditional counseling involves a broad perspective that enhances learning for transformation and integration of sociocultural values that are peculiar to each human society. A world of spirits (good & bad) in all 3. Traditional African Religion ANIMISM 1. In traditional African society, men guarded the home and the cattle, or went to war. Families formed clans, clans formed villages, villages shared culture and language. (iii) They determine punishment for the offenders. of Kinship in . These social groups are birth and marriage based. Aboriginal kinship and family structures are still cohesive forces which bind Aboriginal people together in all parts of Australia. This is a gift from the groom or his family to the bride's family, often in livestock but sometimes in money or other forms of wealth. Kinship refers to the culturally defined relationships between individuals who are commonly thought of as having family ties. Such ties often extend outside the village or community, offering certain advantages. Africa has the world's oldest record of human technological achievement: the oldest stone tools in the world have been found in eastern Africa, and later evidence for tool production by our hominin ancestors has been found across Sub-Saharan Africa. People can identify with either parent's local groups or with other relatives by marriage. Pierre Bourdieu, Levi Strauss and Evans Pritchard are some of the theorists, who have constructed various theories on the basis of kinship relations. So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. Contrasting Cultures . In modern Africa social and economic changes have begun to loosen the ties of traditional kinship, especially in the cities. Diviner mediator between the tribe and God. At its most basic levels, according to the Sociology Group, kinship refers to: Kinship, system of social organization based on real or putative family ties. On one level, kinship rules may determine marriage partners. Kinship is important to a person and a community's well-being. •The resulting units are called unilineal descent groups, either patrilineages or matrilineages according to the prevailing descent rule. Reviews the biological and sociological constants of kinship; Previews the topicsto be covered in marriage, family… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 2. Because different societies define kinship differently, they also set the rules governing kinship, which are sometimes legally defined and sometimes implied. Implications for service providers when working with Aboriginal families. American birth rights are usually decided bilineally, using both parents Since Christians in Zimbabwe have given the name Mwari to the biblical God, the fuller view of Mwari has important ramifications for Christian theology and ministry. There were several reasons for this assumption. Importance . Some women are raising children apart from the traditional family frameworks. It determines the rights and obligations of the members in all the sacraments and religious practices from birth to death in family life. Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. Defines kinship and explains its importance. paper by . 6. If a person was born to farmers, they would be farmers, etc. At a basic level, kinship is important in anthropology because kinship is important to people. For example, African kinfolk may support women and children while their husbands are away, perhaps by helping paying school fees or other expenses. This essay will briefly explore traditional African family patterns explaining the concept of kinship in Africa, the differences and similarities between patrilineal and matrilineal families systems. All Rights Reserved | Home | About Us | Contact Us | Copyright | Terms Of Use | Privacy Policy | Advertise. 5. Because Islam arose among pastoral people in Arabia in the A.D. 600s, Islamic law tends to reflect patrilineal practices. Traditionally the Aboriginal family was a collaboration of clans composed of mothers, fathers, uncles, aunties, sisters, brothers, cousins and so …